Mathematicians have struggled to understand why deep learning techniques work. This is important because these techniques underpin many of the recent breakthroughs in artificial intelligence including Deep Mind's recent Go victory. 

New research by Henry Lin at Harvard and Max Tegmark at MIT shows that it is physics and the nature of the universe that provides the answer. This improved understanding of why should underpin even faster progress in the future. Given how important artificial intelligence is becoming, this has profound implications across many industries.